on a boat.
||Please send any
comments to me.
This page updated:
From Seven Seas Cruising Association's 2000 Equipment Survey:
"Eliminate the fridge and you don't need a generator, you run the engine
two hours less, take off three solar panels, cut your battery bank in half,
and mooch ice cubes off everyone in the anchorage."
A freezer is even more demanding than a refrigerator,
from "Refrigeration for Pleasureboats" by Nigel Calder
- Takes more space, because needs more insulation.
- Takes about twice the energy of a refrigerator.
- Food in freezer is more sensitive to temperature rise, so:
- Breakdown quickly causes major food loss.
- Can't leave boat unattended / unpowered for very long.
If no refrigeration (not even an icebox):
- No meat (except salted, canned or smoked).
- No cold drinks.
- No ice cream.
- No milk (except canned or powdered or UHT).
- Some vegetables (lettuce, celery, etc) will perish very quickly.
Maybe this is tolerable.
Main types of refrigeration:
- Compression (aka "Evaporative")
Used in home and most boat refrigerators.
Uses [DC-electric-powered or AC-electric-powered or boat-engine-powered]
compressor to circulate the refrigerant, which may be Freon.
Lubricating oil mixed into refrigerant.
- Evaporator: liquid refrigerant passes through expansion valve or capillary tube,
expands and absorbs heat from inside area, changes from liquid to gas.
- Compressor: compresses gas refrigerant, heating it further.
- Condenser: refrigerant transfers heat to outside, changes from gas to liquid.
Uses gas heat to circulate the refrigerant,
which may be ammonia-hydrogen-water mixture.
No moving parts.
All contents at same pressure.
Sensitive to direction of gravity.
- Generator: heats water-ammonia,
- Condenser: ammonia transfers heat
to outside air, changes from gas to liquid.
- Evaporator: hydrogen mixes with ammonia,
absorbs heat from inside area, changes from liquid to gas.
- Absorber: water absorbs ammonia, releases hydrogen.
- Peltier (thermoelectric)
Used in small self-cooling ice-chests.
Uses electricity to drive a bi-metal element; one side of element
gets hot while other side gets cool.
No moving parts.
Very inefficient, and can drop temperature only 40 degrees below ambient.
Can be used to heat as well as cool.
Peltier Device Information Directory (Thermoelectric Cooler/Heater/Generator Modules)
Askeland kits for installing Peltier air-cooled or water-cooled in a box
- Evaporative (non-mechanical)
Zeer pot (AKA pot-in-pot):
From Dennis Craven on SlashFood:
"It's basically two large [unglazed] earthen pots, one nested in the other.
The space is filled with sand and water is added.
A damp cloth covers the top [maybe with a clay lid on the inner pot].
As the water evaporates [through the surface of the outer pot],
the inner pot containing the perishables is kept cool -- water
evaporation draws heat from the inner vessel. Water is added twice a day."
Requires a dry (low-humidity) environment with good air-flow.
From BobRainbow on SlashFood:
"One problem I found in the developed world was that our pots don't seem to be porous enough.
They are fired too high and don't allow enough evaporation.
You also need quite a high ambient temperature to make them work.
I tried some while it was coolish and they did absolutely nothing."
From MJ on SlashFood:
"On hunting trips we had a low-tech way of keeping food cool. We had a tin box, possibly six or so cubic feet,
that was covered with two or three wraps of burlap (old potato sacks). The box was filled with
food (and beer of course) and placed at the edge of a creek. The burlap surrounding the box was
well soaked. The end of the long piece of burlap that surrounded the box was placed in the creek
so the box would be continually kept wet through capillary action. If the weather was extremely hot,
every couple of hours, the burlap on the box would be soaked with water. The evaporation of the water
keeps the food good for several days and the beer cold enough until you didn't care if the beer was cold or hot.
(The evaporation of water from the sacks surrounding the tin box keeps
the contents cooler than the temperature of the creek.)"
Wonder if this would work with salt water, hanging such a box off the side of a boat ?
Requires a dry (low-humidity) environment with good air-flow ?
Use a nearby body of earth or water that is at a lower temperature
than the air. Unfortunately, tropical or southern water is too warm for this.
Holding plates, and cycling:
Each type of refrigeration can be used with or without a "holding
plate" (aka "cold plate")
that is taken to a low temperature and then absorbs heat from the contents
of the refrigerator over the next day or so.
If there is no holding plate,
the system must be "constant-cycling" (with a thermostat, running often,
such as 3 minutes out of every 15)
to maintain the temperature. Obviously constant-cycling doesn't make
sense for engine-driven or genset-AC-powered systems.
Rough rule of thumb: holding-plate system will take about 1/2 as
much energy as a constant-cycling system. But a holding-plate system is more expensive
and complex and doesn't run automatically.
It seems to me that the type of refrigeration should be matched to the type
of power source you will use. A high-power short-duration power source such
as an engine or generator would work well with holding-plate refrigeration.
A low-power long-duration power source such
as solar panels or wind generator would work well with constant-cycling refrigeration.
Dock AC power would work with either type of refrigeration.
Each type of refrigeration can use air-cooling
or water-cooling, or both, to transfer heat from the
outside of the system to the environment.
Water-cooling can be done either by pumping seawater through a heat-exchanger in the condensor,
or by a keel cooler (metal outside the hull, connected to the condensor).
Air-cooling is simpler and doesn't require through-hulls,
but is less efficient (water conducts heat better than air,
and the sea usually is cooler than the air near the refrigerator).
Better to oversize your system (and pay a little extra),
than to undersize it (and have to run it all the time).
Rough rules of thumb: in tropics, refrigerator load is 600 BTU's
per cubic foot, and freezer is double that.
Good: efficient (no power-conversion losses); high capacity.
Bad: increases engine hours; runs engine at low load;
have to run engine when docked; rubber hoses to engine-mounted compressor
are slightly porous, so moisture can get in.
Good: mass-market constant-cycling equipment is cheap; simple hookup when docked.
Bad: need genset when cruising; holding-plate equipment is expensive.
Good: very flexible (power from batteries, wind, solar, alternator, and/or battery charger).
Bad: probably have to upgrade whole DC system; less efficient if power-conversion losses.
Many "marine AC/DC" refrigerators are expensive because
they contain an inverter and an AC-powered compressor.
Compressor and motor are sealed into a container and bathed in oil.
Good: low cost; compact; long life.
Bad: limited power, designed for constant-cycling.
- Open / belt-driven:
Good: higher power; can connect to many power sources (AC motor, DC motor, engine, genset).
Bad: more expensive.
- Filter / dryer / receiver:
Filter protects compressor from debris.
Dryer removes water.
Receiver keeps expansion valve supplied with liquid, and can hold
entire refrigerant charge during servicing.
Reservoir for liquid, to prevent liquid from getting to compressor.
DC-battery-based system may require upgrading whole DC system,
from "Refrigeration for Pleasureboats" by Nigel Calder
- Bigger batteries, to satisfy the power requirements.
- Higher-capacity alternator, to recharge batteries in reasonable amount of time.
- Fancier voltage regulator on the alternator, to charge batteries fast but avoid overcharging.
- Maybe solar panels or a wind-generator, to reduce engine run time.
Terrific book: "Refrigeration for Pleasureboats" by Nigel Calder
Theory, building icebox, choosing system, sizing and building cold plate,
installing, troubleshooting, servicing, etc. Pretty heavy going in places.
How Stuff Works's "How Refrigerators Work"
SailNet - Curt Epperson's "Managing the Cold"
Article by G. Kevin Alston in issue 1999 #4 of DIY Boat Owner magazine
Kollmann Marine's "Insulation"
SailNet - Joy Smith's "The Art of Ice-ing"
SailNet - Sue & Larry's "Installing 12-Volt Refrigeration"
Article by Joe Minick in 3/2004 issue of Cruising World magazine
Article by Steve D'Antonio in May/June 2004 issue of Ocean Navigator magazine
Article by Nigel Calder in Mar/Apr 2008 issue of Ocean Navigator magazine
Planet DC at RParts (12V only, no inverter inside; large shipping charge)
TropiKool (Stirling compressor, CO2 refrigerant)
From Cecil Smith on the Morgan mailing list:
Good source of parts or service: Indian River RV Sales and Service in Sebastian, FL.
From Richard Kollmann on Cruising World message board 12/2004:
Costs of maintaining a boat's refrigerator are skyrocketing due to recent changes in the
refrigerant industry and the lack of knowledge when servicing them. The ban on manufacturing R12
refrigerant has resulted in mistakes in how to service these units, costing many boaters hundreds
Here are some things boaters should know:
Refrigerant 101: Refrigeration is the process of removing the heat from the evaporator in the
refrigerated box and disposing of it to an area outside the box. The compressor circulates the
heat to the condenser where it is transferred to another medium: air or seawater. It does not
matter what type of a mechanical refrigerator you have; this is the basic principle of how it
Refrigerant 102: Most older boat refrigeration systems used Freon R12 refrigerant, except for
low-temperature freezers which used R502. Both of these refrigerants can no longer be manufactured as
they affect the ozone layer and global warming. If you determine that your unit needs R12, it is
best to stay with that refrigerant. Yes, there is plenty of R12 out there but it just costs more.
R12 is currently selling for $20 per small can on Ebay. Remember the final authorization to use
alternative refrigerants or oil should come from the compressor manufacturer and no one else. The
most-used 12/24 volt refrigerator compressor is the Danfoss. It is used by Adler Barbour and at
least twelve other companies. The older Danfoss BD 2.5 compressors use Freon R12 refrigerant and
mineral refrigerant oil. Refrigerant 134a was not approved for these compressors because of its
inability to mix with mineral oil, and to change the oil to a compatible oil might destroy the
insulation on the motor wiring. There is one blended refrigerant, 409a, that can be used as a
replacement for R12 in BD2.5 compressors, but only in an emergency in cool climates. Warning:
never mix refrigerants, and always vacuum out the old before inserting a substitute.
Hermetically sealed compressors that are powered by alternating current (110 or 220 volt) may be
filled with Alkylbenzene oil, which is compatible with HCFC component refrigerants. Blended
refrigerant 409a is recommended as a replacement for R12 in systems where the compressor contains
Externally-driven compressors, engine-driven or those with large 12/24 volt motors, are being
converted from Freon R12 to 134a refrigerant. This also includes changing to a compatible Poly
Ester conversion oil. If you have one of these systems, contact the system manufacturer for their
correct procedures before making this conversion.
Don’t forget to clean the condenser coil annually on air/water cooled refrigerators when the
system performance is in question.
Nondestructive testing to determine refrigerant quantity is important to avoid contamination. You
don’t need a mechanic to check out your boat's 12-volt refrigerator before your cruise. Turn the
refrigerator on and after 30 minutes there should be frost covering the evaporator. Adler Barbour
and other similar ice box conversion units supply a three-foot piece of insulated tubing to use on
the lines just outside the box. In moderate temperatures and humidity three feet of insulation
should be enough to prevent moisture on the lines outside the box. In hot humid climates, it is a
good idea to insulate both tubes together in a single insulation tube outside the box all the way
to the condensing unit. If the evaporator is not 100% covered with frost, the unit is low on
refrigerant. It frost extends outside the box on the line back to the compressor then there is too
much refrigerant in the system.
Large refrigeration systems in boats generally have holding plates inside the refrigerated box
that may take more than an hour to freeze. A touch of a finger on different parts of the system
can tell if the system is working OK. On the line just before the plate is an expansion valve; by
touching the outlet of this valve performance of the system can be determined. After about ten
minutes the temperature of the outlet of the valve should be below +10 degrees F. If you place a
finger on the valve outlet at this time your finger will almost stick to the valve indicating the
system is probably OK. Systems with expansion valves generally have a sight-glass in the pressure
liquid line after the condenser that will indicate refrigerant quantity, but you must know what it
looks like when the system has the correct amount of refrigerant in it.
To extend the life and obtain the best performance from your boat's refrigerator:
- Use the correct refrigerant and oil.
- Only connect servicing gauges when it is proven necessary and purge the
gauge set before connecting it.
- One ounce plus or minus of refrigerant will effect the
performance of any capillary expansion device system like the Adler Barbour.
- On the new BD35 and
BD50 compressor systems the actual compressor run time or cycling is no longer a true indication
I provide a great deal of free boat refrigeration information on
so be sure to check
out the Forum and FAQ section. It you have one of the new efficient 12/24 volt compressors, the
Slide Show will be of interest also.
From Richard Kollmann on Cruising World message board 4/2005:
Always look at the small-print specifications. "The above ratings are based
on cruising in areas where the seawater is not warmer than 72 degrees F
and the box must have medium size insulation."
New Refrigeration Systems are not always more efficient.
The ASU is a great enhancement to these refrigeration units where the
compressor selected has a capacity somewhere in the mid range of the box's
daily average heat load. The ASU's normal function is much like a car's
automatic transmission by slowing the compressor down when high power is
not needed. Slowing the compressor speed cuts current draw as much as half.
Another advantage of the Auto Speed Up ( ASU ) is to override the controls
when charging current is available to the battery buss.
There is extensive testing of these speed controllers in my 12/24 Volt
refrigeration manual with computer analysis profiles. The results of the
Isotherm Model 4201 Magnum with ASU Showed poor results because the
tropical heat load on the box was to much for the range of the system
and ASU. On the other end, if the compressor at slow speed is too large
for the box heat load excessive current will be used.
If the system is to be used in warmer waters than the manufacturer's
specification list, their figures must be adjusted to a new capacity
and current draw. I use a simple rule: add 4 percent for each degree
of warmer water, or subtract 2 percent for each degree F of cooler seawater.
From refrigeration article by Nigel Calder in 1/2004 issue of Sail magazine:
- Used to recommend DC-powered holding-plate systems, but
now favors DC-powered constant-cycling in many cases, because
small compressors are getting more efficient and higher-output,
and insulation is getting better.
Also, constant-cycling units use hermetic compressors (fewer leaks),
capillary tubes (no moving parts), smaller footprint inside the box,
- Constant-cycling AC-powered: good if usually connected to shore power.
- Holding-plate engine-powered: most efficient (little power-conversion loss),
but requires a lot of engine run-time, often at low-load.
And have to run engine even if connected to shore power.
Can't run unattended.
- DC-powered: even if charged from engine, can have less
engine run-time than engine-powered alternative, because
batteries can be charged faster than holding plate can be cooled.
- DC-powered is most flexible: can power from engine/alternator,
solar, wind, shore power (charger), etc.
- "Hybrid" systems such as Glacier Bay's Micro HPS are appearing.
A small-holding-plate system with many of the advantages of constant-cycling
systems (hermetic compressor, compact unit) and holding-plate
systems (more efficient, high capacity).
- Nice to have two DC-powered constant-cycling units:
still cheaper than a holding-plate system,
get to separate freezer and refrigerator, and get redundancy.
Additional from article in Mar/Apr 2008 issue of Ocean Navigator magazine
- Engine-driven compressor can be large and powerful, minimizing holding-plate
freeze-down time and engine running time. But this is limited by rate at which heat can be withdrawn
from a holding plate, which is function of surface area of evaporator tubing and temperature
differential. Probably requires multiple holding plates.
- Note that the slower the compressor's operating speed, the more efficient it
is (i.e. the more BTUs of heat removed per watt-hour of energy consumed).
There are significant benefits to be had from running a compressor for longer hours at slower speeds,
rather than for shorter hours at higher speeds.
- In recent years, the relative efficiency of the small compressors used
in constant-cycling units versus the larger versions used in holding-plate systems has improved.
Efficiency of small compressors can be further boosted by variable speed controllers (which
run for longer hours at lower loads; doesn't pay if a water pump is used for cooling).
From John Dunsmoor [circa 2001]:
The most successful of the cruisers in my experience are using dual-coil
holding plate refrigeration with dual compressors. One being engine-driven
and the other electric, either 110 volt or 12 volt. The choice in electric
is usually based on whether the vessel will be berthed a good deal of the time
or has a generator in suite. I would say now a days most are going for 12-volt
mainly because the new 12-volt compressors are getting a lot better
than they used to be. You will find that most vessels in the forty-foot
range do not have a generator, so they are using their engine to top off
batteries for an hour or so anyway. The engine-driven compressor has a great
deal more power than an electric compressor and will bring a holding plate
down to temperature very quickly.
From Dave Richardson on the
WorldCruising mailing list:
- Don't oversize your freezer or you will be cooling a very large volume
that is used less than you think. In our cruising we eat more dry, sealed
and fresh than frozen. Leave more room for beer and less for meat. There
is nothing like a cold beer on a hot day to get you through the clearance
procedures in the islands.
- As the material in the freezer is removed, replace it with plastic jugs
filled with water. They will then freeze and provide solid, highly cold
absorptive material that will balance the running of the compressor cycles.
- On the drains at the bottom, install shut off valves [or a cork] that prevent cold from
spilling through that little hole into your bilge.
- If your boat is even a few years old, start all over on the insulation.
The old material will likely be undersized, deteriorating and can be
improved with modern technology anyway. This is not a fun job. But most
(all) production boats use only a couple of inches of low efficiency (R2 per
inch, and if it's water-soaked R0) foam insulation. Spending some time,
energy and $$ on improving this with high-efficiency closed-cell insulation
at R20 to R50 per inch will yield tremendous results.
- If it has a front-opening door, get rid of it and install top access only.
Every time you open the front door, the cold spills out and the seals will
leak anyway. You may have to stretch to get to the bottom, but that is
viewed as an opportunity to clean the accumulated grunge out anyway.
- Check out Glacier Bay. They cut and
distribute a high performance (read also high cost) insulation material,
sell a great ready to install freezer and fridge lid, and then of course have
AC and DC cooling systems.
- Go cruising prepared with your own set of gauges (make sure they are for
your fittings), silver solder (to repair lines), and a can of the
appropriate refrigerant. You will at some point lose the refrigerant and
rather than feed the sharks indigestible frozen meat it may be you are able
to repair it.
- Go with a water-cooled [instead of air-cooled] system [condenser].
It is about 10X more efficient in thermal
transfer and doesn't warm up your cabin.
- Choice of systems depends as much on your fridge and freezers volume,
insulation, your battery bank, power sources etc as anything. At least in
my experience, and where we spend most of our time, the system of choice is
either Adler-Barbour, Frigomatic, Sea-Frost, or Glacier Bay.
- Locate refrigerator/freezer away from heat
sources such as oven and engine.
From Mr. Appliance:
- Brush and vacuum the condenser at least twice
a year for maximum energy efficiency.
- Place two thermometers in your refrigerator, one in the freezer
and one in the fresh food compartment.
Check the thermometers each time you open the door.
The freezer temperature should be less than
10°F and the fresh food compartment should be between 36 and 38°F.
- When a refrigerator is warming up and your frozen food starts thawing out,
most of the time the
problem is not the compressor or loss of Freon but rather in the controls.
From Brian Woloshin on Cruising World message board:
12-volt-powered refrigeration gives you the most flexibility.
In port you can use a battery charger.
You can use solar or wind and if the sun don't shine you can run the engine.
From "Second Thoughts" article by Tim Murphy in 6/2004 issue of Cruising World magazine:
From Rob Dubin: for a DC refrigerator, get a smaller compressor
motor rather than a bigger one. The batteries are much happier putting out small
current for long periods rather than large current for short periods.
From Steve Strand on the
WorldCruising mailing list:
We also lived for ten and cruised for several years with a Dometic LPG
fridge and loved it, except on passages where we were heeled over. After
about 24 hours on a single tack it just stopped working. I thought about a
gimbal, but it just got too large and tricky. Works great except for that and
the fact that you need to vent some heat. [And you need to buy LPG.]
From Larry KN4IM on rec.boats.cruising newsgroup:
[A friend's] compressor is mounted on the boat with a belt to the engine.
I think this stresses the engine mounts and pulls the engine out of alignment
with the shaft because I can see it pulling the engine sideways,
loosening the belt. I wouldn't install one in this manner. Insist
they bracket the compressor properly to the ENGINE not the BOAT.
Paraphrased from "The Boatowners Mechanical and Electrical Manual" by Nigel Calder
- Refrigerator compressor: want low-pressure and high-temperature cutout
switches on compressor body.
- Reciprocal compressor (York, Tecumseh) better than
swash-plate compressor (Sankyo, Sanden).
From Peter Hendrick:
Among things that we specifically avoided based upon 1st-year experience:
Engine-driven refrigerator (we were tired of being a slave to the boat; now
we have a small and very efficient 12 volt / air-cooled system that came with boat
which uses 55 amp-hrs/day).
From Mitch on the SailNet liveaboard-list:
First, I'm in favor of sailing with refrigeration and margaritas!
Some sailor types are also minimalists, not in favor of refers (but, they
usually like the margaritas).
I installed a SeaFrost system on my Tartan 37. It included both an engine
driven compressor and a 12V compressor which ran from 110VAC via an
inverter. It had a glycol solution which froze a holding metal block
"plate" about the size of a block of ice. Two ice cube trays sat above the
block and I could make ice cubes in 45 minutes. Very cool. The block would
freeze meat, or whatever in one partitioned part of the ice box and
refrigerated the other half of the box via holes in the partition. I could
use 110VAC when at the dock, or engine when cruising underway or at anchor
or 12VDC when necessary.
I would recommend something similar. Glacier Bay also has a great system.
You want holding plates and a freezer section that can drive a compressor
from your engine via direct or a large 12VDC motor or 110VAC. ALL of the
cruisers that we met with only 12VDC refers that ran from the batteries
only, without holding plates - ran their batteries dead all the time.
The goal is to freeze the plates in 45 minutes or less. That way the
engine/genset can do the job without running too long and make a days worth
of cold, re-charge the batts and hopefully make your daily water usage (if
you have a water maker).
Systems that just "trickle" all day to make cold, or electric, or water suck
if you really seek cruising independence.
From David Romasco on the SailNet liveaboard-list:
Our current boat had a Grunert engine-driven holding plate system, which
I've removed in favor of a super-efficient 12 VDC system using a keel
cooler from Frigoboat; VERY satisfied to date.
Two thoughts: Do you REALLY want a refrigeration system that relies on
running that very expensive diesel at extended idle to make it work?
And if you are looking at 12 VDC systems, remember that almost all
manufacturers build their system around the same Danfoss compressors.
From GATOR / Calypso on Latitudes and Attitudes Cruisers Forum:
Our last three "cruising" boats had different systems:
Alberg: Ice Box.
Always plenty of ice for cool drinks.
About as simple as it gets.
Everything is always wet.
Need for ice every couple days.
Clogs in drain are a real pain.
No ability to keep frozen food frozen (short of dry ice, which wasn't practical for us).
Vertical stacking storage is a pain.
Beneteau: 12-volt air-cooled.
Loved it, low energy drain.
Small freezer compartment could keep a steak or two frozen and make small quantity of ice.
Never had a problem with it.
Not enough ice production for 4 people.
Freezer too small for serious frozen storage.
Vertical storage still a bit of a pain, but side racks made it easier.
Door allows access to everything quickly without digging.
Freezer good for our frozen needs and making ice.
Even living aboard full-time and using the grill and stove almost every night,
we use one 20-lb propane bottle [about $18] once a month.
We have a multi-hull; I understand that propane fridges like to be level.
The heat generated goes to the cockpit, which is nice on a cool morning, but on a hot day it's not welcome.
Purists may scoff at a unit with a door, but our system is so cold, it's not an issue;
we monitor it with an external thermometer and it really isn't an issue.
If I used more than one bottle of propane a month, I might think otherwise.
Ease of access makes all the difference.
We still have a cooler in the cockpit. With a family of four, it's not realistic
to keep everything in the fridge. So we'll put in a couple of bags of ice (which we
use for our drinks) all our drinks and any veggies that want to be cool but take
up a lot of space (lettuce, broccoli, etc). If it was just my wife and I,
we could easily live with just the fridge. I really like having a big old pile
of ice around. A coke in a big tall glass of ice tastes FAR better to me than
one straight out of the can. Same for lemonade. We have one of those Coleman "five day" coolers.
Keep in mind, our needs are those of coastal cruisers; we shop once a week and have
a diet very much the same as we have on land. An "ideal" system for a coastal
cruiser with a family is going to be different than the "ideal" system for
a single-handed long-range cruiser.
Summarized from article in
DIY Boat Owner magazine, issue 1999 #4:
- Many boat ice-boxes have water-saturated insulation; drill
a test hole to find out. If wet, the entire box should be
- All foam (except extruded polystyrene) should have a 1/2"
air gap outside it, and should have no moisture barrier
on the outside.
- Don't put an extra cushion/insulation on top of the lid,
unless you include an air gap.
- Want refrigerator space about 2x size of freezer.
- Want separate refrigerator and freezer spaces, not a
combined "spillover" box (temperature
is erratic and system is less efficient).
- Sponge or pump excess water out of box, don't drain it
into a sump or the bilge.
- Gasket on door/lid is very important.
From Desmond Smith on The Live-Aboard List:
... use flare fittings instead of compression fittings.
Either fitting will work.
The downside of the compression fittings is that they can
only be tightened a fixed amount until the ferrule gets
crimped onto the tube. The flare fittings can be tightened
until the threads get stripped off.
From Colin Foster on SSCA discussion boards:
- Use the engine-driven compressor to get the refrigerator cold each day,
then battery/solar to maintain that coldness.
- Don't use spray-in foam to add insulation; it gets wet and mushy.
- Foil goes outside of insulation on box, with shiny
side facing outwards; it keeps heat out of the box.
- Compressor gets hot and needs good ventilation.
- From "Dragged Aboard" by Don Casey:
Simple evaporative cooling: put a soda can inside a water-soaked
sweatsock, and hang it in a shady and breezy place.
- Engine-driven compressor is bad because engine vibration
damages compressor (causes refrigerant leaks),
and you have to be on board every day to run the engine/refrigerator.
- Refrigeration tools: see
Tools section of my Boat Maintenance page.
- John Neal recommends Frigomatic.
- The biggest cost of refrigeration may be a hidden cost:
the premature engine overhaul caused by long hours of
running at low load (to charge batteries).
- Consider tying down a foam cushion on top of the refrigerator
top door, to add more insulation.
- With a top-loading refrigerator with holding plate at bottom,
put a tight-fitting sheet of foam/plastic
inside on top of the contents, to reduce the amount of air
that has to be cooled.
- With a front-loading refrigerator, install a sheet of plastic
attached at the bottom inside the door, to reduce the amount of air
that spills out when you open the door.
- "DO NOT buy an undersized unit. It will run more,
run hotter, draw more current and wear out
- Idea: to get a ready-made box, buy a home freezer and use the box; replace the mechanism.
- Nova Kool is quiet; Norcold is noisy ?
- New Adler-Barbour ColdMachine's using Danfoss parts emit RFI
that affects Marine SSB and Ham radios. Mfr has solution.
But from Gene Gruender on IRBS live-aboard mailing list:
We didn't notice it too much on our SSB, but it was bad on our VHF, even if
we weren't receiving or transmitting it had a hum. It was noticeable by the
people who were receiving our VHF transmissions as well.
I put a large filter from Radio Shack that was intended for a stereo in a
car on the VHF power input and it helped a lot. If I could have found one
that would have handled the amperage I would have installed one on the SSB
and Fridge as well, but we were in Key West about to leave for the Bahamas
when we went looking for something to fix it and that was all we found. I
don't recall now what all I did to convince myself that the interference
was all coming in on the power line and not the antenna, but I do recall
that I was pretty sure that was how it was affecting it and the filter
The Adler Barbour unit uses a crude inverter to run the compressor and I
expect that it is just a noisy unit. I would expect that some shielding
and a lot of filtering, both at the compressor and the unit being affected,
would be the only cure.
By the way, ours is about 5 years old and I have no idea if it has Danfoss
parts or not.
- Dry ice: evaporates quickly,
may make plastic/fiberglass brittle after a while,
dangerous to touch, produces CO2 which is
dangerous in an enclosed area (boat).
- Want low-voltage cutoff, so refrigerator won't run batteries
down to zero if boat is unattended for a while.
- Put a plastic grate at the bottom of the ice-box: keeps the
drain open, gives ventilation, reduces impact of spills.
- From Jim McCorison on YahooGroups liveaboards mailing list:
Insurance companies seem to be increasingly nervous of propane devices
in boats which can/are left unattended. Our new-to-us-boat has a
propane/AC freezer on the boat deck. Both insurance agents we have
talked to indicated that insurance companies would most likely deny
coverage if the freezer unit was inside the boat. They don't want any
propane devices which are not "attended" to.
- Drain at bottom is a big loss of insulation;
don't have a drain, or put a cork in it, or have a water-filled trap in it.
- Put a battery-powered "cube" fan in the refrigerator
to keep an even temperature throughout it.
- Want a temperature probe inside refrigerator and gauge outside,
so you can monitor temperature without opening the door.
- From Seven Seas Cruising Association's 2000 Equipment Survey:
"... insulation is sadly lacking from the average sailboat icebox (4")."
's earlier book was a wealth of
information - the systems I built from it have given top-notch service now for
about 10 years BUT.
Don't purchase his water-cooled condensers. They are badly designed.
All three that I purchased from him failed in the same way.
Freon erosion from the entry tube cuts through the water jacket in about 2 to 3 years,
allowing salt water into your freon system. ... Although he was very responsive
and helpful while I was building the system and purchasing parts, he never responded
to any of my reports about the condenser failures so beware.
From Mary Mcatee on The Live-Aboard List:
Have had lousy luck with our fullsized Norcold fridge. It is AC/DC
autoswitch and I can tell you it sucks a battery down right now.
We also had to totally replace the fridge when it was three years old (total
From Michael Rich on The Live-Aboard List:
I also had one of the full size nevercolds and it proved true to its
name. The compressor was replaced three times and you know how expensive
that can be. I ended up cutting the whole unit out with a saws-all and
putting it in the dumpster because the boat cabinetry was built around it.
This is one company I will never support again for refrigeration. Now I'm
getting along well with a 110 VAC 3.3 approx cube fridge running off a
separate inverter and a couple 4d's.
From Bob Young on The Live-Aboard List:
I just want to put in a word here in defense of Norcold. I installed one of
their icebox conversion units on my last boat, and it ran 24/7 flawlessly for 5
years, and was still running when I sold the boat. I installed another one a
friend's boat, and his experience was identical. I chose this brand because
they have a lower power consumption and are much cheaper than Adler Barbour. At
that time - about 1994 - the whole kit cost about $400.
Another advantage was the ability to run on both AC and DC, and switching
automatically to AC when available. Actually, as previously stated here, the
compressor runs on 24 VAC, which is provided from 110 VAC via a transformer and
from 12VDC via an inverter and another winding in the transformer. The AC
powered hermetically sealed design is probably the most reliable and
maintenance-free type of compressor - this type is used in almost all domestic
refrigerators and air-conditioners, and these devices often run 20 years or
more without maintenance.
From Roger Mummah on the SailNet liveaboard-list 4/2003:
We have a Grunert air- and water-cooled frig. It has worked flawlessly since
I installed it in 1997.
I installed the water-cooling plumbing (new thru hull too), but the tiny sea
water circulation pump makes too much noise. In my infinite wisdom I "hard
mounted" it to fiberglass and it makes the boat roar. Powerful little pump.
That's one of my projects - to find a softer mount for it.
From Norm on The Live-Aboard List:
We have had excellent service from our Engel reefers (one as reefer, one as
freezer) and they have our highest recommendation.
From David on The Live-Aboard List:
The one used as a freezer a few months ago began having problems starting.
It would take several tries, running for only 3.5 seconds, before it would stay
[The distributor] replaced the
machinery on the spot and the trouble disappeared.
We highly recommend the Engel. Our two units, both MT-45's, have been in
operation for almost two years and we are very happy with them. The one used as a
freezer (simply the coldest setting on the thermostat) keeps ice cream hard
and makes ice cubes daily.
My Engel reefer used about 1.8 amps when I measured it some time ago.
The unit set to 0 deg F for use as a
freezer pulls 2.6 amps. The freezer runs almost all the time so it might use as
much as 60 amp/hours per day.
I guess the reefer uses about 20-25 amp/hours per day depending on the
I recommend the Engel, but contact the Engel distributor,
for the latest in his line of portable reefer units, the state-of-the-art
is in rapid development.
My main complaint about the Engel is the insulation. The series is designed
to operate having an unlimited supply of electricity and is not as efficient
as would be a unit with more or higher R-value insulation. Perhaps there is
available a unit with more insulation that would fit your space. I thought of
adding insulation to the Engels, even have it on board, but never found the
round-tuit needed ...
The more insulation, the less electricity required, but the
less room for food available for a given outside dimension. There are some
vacuum panels that claim high R values that might be of value on a portable unit.
Within the next year, I may be replacing my Engel's with SunDanzer units which
have 4.3" of insulation. They have 4x the interior space and take about the
> the Engel can sit out in the hot summer sun with a temp
> (I measured it) of 125 deg F on its 'skin' and be
> zero deg. F inside with only 18 AH per day consumption.
I find the above statement hard to believe. 18 AH/day is 9 hours of
operation out of 24 for a duty cycle of .36. It was on 36% of the time. Our Engel
freezer, set to zero F, in the galley, used more like 50 AH/day and operated
almost continuously in the summer.
I have used two Engel units for about two years, one as a refrigerator and
one as a freezer.
They pulled about two amps each when running. These were the 1.4 Cu/Ft units.
Early on I put an hour meter on one of them and made some guesses as to AH
used. My final conclusion was that both together used about 75 AH in the
summertime with ambient temps around 90F, somewhat less in winter with the ambients
Their main drawback for us was that the insulation is around one inch and
they were small, 1.4 Cu/Ft. They seem to be designed for use in a motor vehicle
with a plentiful supply of 12 to 24 volts where portability was important.
However, they were well designed by a German, solidly built by the
Japs, and worked very well even considering the AH useage for their
size. The were also self-contained, trouble-free, and sold quickly when
I moved up to my present Sundanzer units.
Our current units, called "Sundanzer" are made in Sweden by Electrolux
specifically for off-grid use. They are around 5 Cu/Ft, pull about 2 amps, and use
the same amount of AH because the insulation is 4.3 inches thick.
We love them but they are a bit large for most boats.
I have aboard a Sundanzer refrigerator and a Sundanzer freezer. They are
made by Electrolux for folks who live with solar panels, as I do.
They are 6 cu/ft, air-cooled, self-contained, 12 volt, 25 watt, quiet,
maintenance-free and wonderful.
Used the BIG Engel before and agree not enough insulation thickness or
quality - we are in the BVI's sheesh even the water temp is over 90 deg.
I would much rather have something 'good' than an almost works option ...
From Jeff Barfett on The Live-Aboard List:
The Engels use some type of 'sling' type compressor that doesn't eat much
power. I've had my 45 running 24x7x6years - no issues, the 45 uses about 2
amps. I've thought many times about getting another, lose the case and
install into the two deep iceboxes, but take a nap and forget the idea as I
have a large investment into SeaFrost holding plates, which by the way make
a lot of very large ice cubes!
From Norm on The Live-Aboard List:
Just a side note that Engel did at one time offer up the 45 without the case
as a 'built-in'. Don't see that it is offered any longer.
The Engel guts are removable as a unit without disconnecting any tubing.
From Richard Kollmann on RParts Technical Forum 2/2004:
Re: a 12-volt freezer:
From Forum Tech on RParts Technical Forum:
The Engel 45 is a top-loading cabinet unit that is AC/DC and will provide the results you are
looking for. This unit is air-cooled and adds about one half the amount of heat to the cabin as a
crew member would. The idea of water-cooling is not practical or reliable enough for these small
I tested most of the new small 12-volt refrigeration systems for my new book and here are a few of
the Engel 45 performance figures:
These tests were performed in a 24-hour controlled environment 78.5° to 81.2° F. in still air
except for the unit's cooling fan.
As a day-use cooler at 46.9° F. the average amp per hour was 0.45 amps.
As a high temp. Freezer at 21.2° F. the average amp per hour was 2.78 amps.
As a low temp. Freezer at -2.65° F. the average amp per hour was 2.56 amps.
The amazing figure in the test as a low temp. unit, with a 82° drop in temperature the outside
cabinet skin temperature only dropped five degrees.
As for the energy consumption you are giving, something isn't right here. Based on the number you
give, and the way you state the test results, for the "average" refrigerator draw (.46 amps/hr.) I
assume that you are taking the total energy consumed and dividing it by the test hours. Indeed, to
do anything else would be useless for comparing to other systems as it is the total amount of
energy used per day that matters.)
From Richard Kollmann on RParts Technical Forum:
On the other hand, if your "average" does include the total run time then you need to double-check
your test setup as there is no way that the system has lower total energy consumption at -2.65F
than it does at 21.2F.
The tests I have done on the Engel 45 are correct and they did prove the value of this inexpensive
Refrigerator/Freezer. The reason the Engel performs so well is it is not a conversion unit, it has
a wrap around evaporator, and the components are a matched set for the boxes heat load.
From Forum Tech on RParts Technical Forum:
I ran a series of tests using a cycle counter, Data logger, computer print outs to plot
performance along with an amp-hour meter. If you check my figures against the manufacturer’s
figures you may find their figures are better than mine.
Average amperes per hour times 24 equals the daily amp-hours consumed.
Cooler 0.45 x 24 = 10.8,
Refrigerator 0.91 x 24 = 21.8,
High Temp. Freezer 1.47 x 24 = 35.3 and a
Low temp. Freezer 2.56 x 24 = 57.5.
Of the two hundred tests I have conducted in the last three years for my book, the ones I did on
the Engel 45 were the most impressive. But like most items sold in the marine environment this
unit is not salt water proof.
Not to belabor the point, but your previous post claimed 2.78 amp/hr average for the high temp
freezer and 2.56 for the low temp freezer. Also, what is the interior volume of this box?
From Richard Kollmann on RParts Technical Forum:
The 24 hour High Temp Freezer Test on the Engel logged 35.3 amp-hrs maintaining the box
temperature at 21.2° F. and divided by 24 equals 1.4708 average amps used per hour. Bill was
looking for a two cu. ft. freezer the Engel 45 quart is 1.5 cu. ft. Engel does have a larger 65
From Richard Kollmann on Cruising World message board:
These Swing compressors have produced a better COP on smaller boxes than the larger Danfoss DB2.5.
The newer BD 35 at its slow speed should approach the same COP of the 60 watt Swing compressor.
Just when we think the new variable speed Danfoss compressors are the answer to all of our small
12 volt conversion designs, I hear of a more efficient variable speed Rotary compressor to be
available soon. The new Rotary is reported to have 30% higher capacity than the BD 50 and a 20%
better COP rating.
If you need more information on these units go to Engel's web site. There are several other
manufacturers of these self-contained units. If you recommend them as a low temperature freezer
make sure the box insulation and the system is rated for the low temperatures.
The tests I
have been running are controlled in a static air area with a stable temperature control. I monitor
each test with temperature data-loggers, cycle meter amp-hr meter, run time hour meter and total
time clock. Three years ago I started evaluating some of the wild claims about boat refrigeration
and box insulation. To do this I obtained many of the various manufacturer’s systems without their
knowledge. After hundreds of tests, I documented the results of what works and what doesn’t.
new book on 12/24 volt refrigeration, there are a series of six evaluations of the Engel 45
refrigerator. Each test compares ambient air temperature against exterior box temperature to
evaluate insulation quality. As to your question about condenser cooling, any air-cooled unit must
draw air from one area and dispose of the super heated air to another area to be efficient. The
refrigerator test listed with a power consumption of 16.1 amp-hrs per day was conducted with an
ambient temperature of 81°F. and an average exterior box temperature of 77° F. As to using it for
a freezer with the thermostat set to full cold, it should outperform any unit that does not have
a full wraparound four-sided evaporator. As a low-temperature freezer with an average ambient
temperature of 80.4°F, it consumed 57.5 amp-hrs per day running on 12 volts, with an exterior box
temperature of 74.5°. With a delta-T of 6 degrees this is within an expectable range to prevent
condensation on box exterior.
There are several manufacturers of these portable boxes and I am not
saying it is the best. What I am saying is that it does exactly what Engel says it will do. There
is no question that if any of these cabinet units were placed in the sun their efficiency would be
affected. With seasonal changes or when cruising areas change, the seawater temperature has a
major affect on cabin air temperature and refrigerator performance. I use a simple formula to
adjust power consumption of air-cooled units located below deck. As the seawater temperature
increases, add 4% for each degree F. of temperature rise or reduce the power consumed by 2% for
each degree of temperature drop. An example of the same boat’s power consumption in California
could be 50% of what the same boat would use in July in Southern Florida.
From Charles Badoian on World-Cruising mailing list:
Using an Engel 35 right now and keeping it up with a 32-watt flexible solar panel on the fridge
setting using a 27 AGM battery. Only issue I have with the device is that it rusts as we keep it
under the companionway on our Corair 31 trimaran and can not prevent water from splashing it. The
rust is on the outside so not really an issue.
Note we have minimal other power use but if we did I am sure the panel would not keep up.
Overall I am very happy with the unit and would highly recommend.
From "Angel Louise": bought a Waeco, and now wish they had bought an Engel instead.
From Steve Weinstein on The Live-Aboard List:
I almost went with the Frigoboat but was reluctant to cut another
below-the-waterline hole in the hull. I discovered the Isotherm unit which,
in most respects, is identical (including price) to the Frigoboat. The big
difference is I didn't have to cut another hole. The Isotherm unit is also
keel-cooled but they developed a "cooler" incorporated into a thru-hull
which replaces an existing through hull. I already had a thru-hull for the
galley sink drain (2" or 2-1/2" I think) and the Isotherm is a direct
replacement. With the Isotherm thru-hull the sink still drains through that
fitting but the heat from the refrigerator system is still dissipated.
From John Sexton on The Live-Aboard List:
This is the system I use. I am very satisfied with it. You do have to
increase the size of the hole in the hull though.
From Steve Weinstein on The Live-Aboard List:
John, it probably varies boat to boat. In my case it was a direct
replacement. The only modification was that I had to cut the drain hose to
shorten it. The Isotherm thru-hull is a few inches taller than the standard one.
From Lee Haefele on The Live-Aboard List 7/2005:
Air-cooling versus water-cooling:
I attended a seminar on refrigeration at last year's SSCA Gam. The water-cooling
did not perform better until compressor was more than 1/6 HP. Until
then, the pump consumed more than the gain. THEN, the instructor advised to
DO ANYTHING POSSIBLE TO NOT SALTWATER COOL. He has had many early failures
due to corrosion, all total losses. Several things that improve
performance: Using a cold plate instead of an evaporator, improves
efficiency due to keeping refrigerant at 15F instead of colder, major
difference in energy use. Variable speed compressor, smart, voltage-sensitive
controls that cool extra when engine or battery charger is on.
The keel-cooler in a drain seemed like a good idea, but, it may not cool
well in a totally calm anchorage; also, be sure to change its zinc.
From Tom Henderson of AvXcel, manufacturers of the TropiKool, on The Live-Aboard List:
The TropiKool 40 runs continuously; it does not
cycle on/off as do conventional compressors. The Electronic Control Module
modulates cooler performance to match the current heat load of the box being
cooled. This modulation is in the form of shortening the piston stroke of
the cooler; this then decreases the power required during low load periods.
Under the Cruising World benchmark criteria, the
TropiKool 40 consumes 18 amp/hrs per 24 hour period. Power consumption at 95
degrees F ambient, a R28 value, and a 40 degree F box temperature, the
TropiKool 40 consumes 36 amp/hrs per 24 hour period. The continuous
operation of the cooler enables the system to maintain a constant box
temperature of +/- 3 degrees of selected temperature.
From article by Glyn Johnson in 4/2007 issue of Caribbean Compass magazine:
"... the box is the most important part of the system.
No matter whose refrigeration system you use, it will not work
efficiently unless you have a good box, and if you have a really
good box then virtually any manufacturer's system will do."
How to test insulating quality of your icebox
summarized and derived from "This Old Boat" by Don Casey
with some additions from "The Boatowners Mechanical and Electrical Manual" by Nigel Calder
- Get a scale, some block ice, and a thermometer.
- Pick a hot day, and close up the boat to get the interior hot (90-100 F).
- Measure temperature just outside the refrigerator/freezer box (ambient
temperature) at various times during the following process.
- Have a typical assortment of food and drink in the box.
- Turn off the refrigerator/freezer and let it warm up (maybe to 50 degrees or so).
- Load ice into the refrigerator/freezer box, as high as possible.
- Wait until box cools down to 40 degrees.
- Weigh the ice (without any water) and put it back in the box.
- Wait some number of hours (at least 6; better is 24) and then weigh
the ice (without any water) again.
Casey says a typical medium-size (9 cu ft) box with 2 inches of polyurethane
foam insulation might melt 24 pounds in 24 hours (but he doesn't
specify the ambient temperature).
Calder gives a Grunert-provided table of typical losses. It lists an
8 cu ft refrigerator box with 3" of insulation losing 3000 BTU (melting
21 pounds) in 24 hours (but it doesn't
specify the ambient temperature).
Go on to calculate daily electrical requirements:
- Calculate daily BTUs needed to replace leakage:
leakage BTUs == 144 * pounds melted * (24 / hours waited).
- Guess at the number of BTUs needed to cool newly-added warm food each day; maybe 1000 to 2000 BTUs.
Maybe 150 BTUs per pound ?
- Guess at the number of times you'll open the door each day; maybe 10 to 20.
- Add BTUs needed to cool things, and replace door-opening leakage:
total BTUs == leakage BTUs + (door-openings * 50) + warm-food BTUs.
- Calculate daily amp-hours (at 12 volts) needed to generate BTUs:
current AHs == (total BTUs / 3.5) / 12.
(Assume refrigerator removes 3.5 BTUs per watt.)
- Guess at the typical expected ambient temperature (just outside the
refrigerator/freezer box) you'll have while cruising.
- Calculate multiplier between average measured ambient temperature and expected ambient temperature:
multiplier == (expected - 40) / (current - 40).
- Calculate expected daily amp-hours (at 12 volts) needed:
expected daily AHs == multiplier * current AHs.
For a freezer, Casey is unclear, but it seems you should:
- Change the warm-food number from 150 BTUs per pound to 300.
- Maybe lose 100 BTUs per door-opening, instead of 50.
- Calculate the multiplier as:
multiplier == (expected - 0) / (current - 40).
For a freezer, Calder says calculate the refrigerator number and double it.
"Refrigeration for Pleasureboats" by Nigel Calder
shows how to calculate heat leakage while designing an icebox, from
its surface area and insulation thickness. It assumes
top-loading, closed-cell foam insulation, and no air leaks.
Paraphrased from "The Boatowners Mechanical and Electrical Manual" by Nigel Calder
and "Refrigeration for Pleasureboats" by Nigel Calder
- Don't make box too large.
- Don't put box in hot part of boat.
- Want top-loading box.
- Better if outside of box's cabinet is light-colored.
- Want double (inner and outer) seals on the hatch.
- Check for voids in the insulation.
- Use closed-cell urethane foam (AKA rigid freon expanded polyurethane foam)
insulation, not polystyrene or Styrofoam (expanded polystyrene).
- Need a moisture barrier outside the insulation.
- Good to have a heat-reflective barrier (aluminum foil) on
the outside of the insulation.
- Box must be airtight.
- Box's interior liner must be strong enough to support heavy holding plates.
- Design box so it's easy to remove the holding plate for repair.
- Any paint on interior should have no lead content.
From John Branch on the Morgan mailing list
I am currently building a refrigerator box for Maria and have spent a good deal of time
researching insulation. The best that
I could locate is Tuff-R by Celotex which has an insulation value of R-8 per inch of thickness.
It's a polyisocyanurate foam and
has slightly better insulating qualities than polyurethane foam. Comes in 4ft x 8ft x 1inch rigid
sheets covered with foil and cost me
twenty bucks per sheet. Initially I wanted to install six inches of thickness but after seeing
how much interior space it took up,
I settled on four inches.
Be sure to line the interior of your box with a plastic vapor barrier
before you begin to install the
insulation. Four to ten mils in thickness is fine and it will prevent moisture from forming and
invading the insulation.
Vacuum insulation is available with a R-50 value at about $25 per square foot but it can
fail for various reasons and then
you're left with no insulation and a real problem.
I used an Adler Barbour Cold Machine on a
previous boat for ten years with
excellent results and for Mariah I've purchased an Adler Barbour Super Cold Machine which will
handle up to a 15 cu ft box.
Instead of using a holding plate as the storage medium, I chose an evaporator and installed an
840 AH battery bank and let it be
the storage medium. ...
From Bob Lucas on the Morgan mailing list
At our Home Depot there is a section with insulation board. I have noticed
that not all Home Depots carry the same boards. They tell me it has to do
with local building requirements of the builders and remodelers. If you don't
find it on the shelf in your area, you might inquire at the contractors desk.
From Dan / SunDial on the SailNet liveaboard-list:
We had an icebox on our previous boat. It was pretty large and we couldn't
possibly keep it full of ice. So, here is what we did and it worked great
for the year that we lived aboard:
1. We removed the teak shelf that held the ice and food off the bottom of
2. We lined the entire icebox with Reflectix, taping the seams with the
aluminum tape that they sell at Home Depot.
3. We took a cooler that would fit inside the icebox and double-wrapped the
sides with Reflectix. The bottom had one layer of Reflectix, again taped to
seal. The top was a single layer of Reflectix that would hinge with the
lid. The cooler that we used was a Rubbermaid, I think. It was designed to
allow 2 liter bottles stand up, so it was taller than it was square.
In this arrangement, we could put a 10 lb block of ice in the bottom of the
cooler and it would keep as long as 5 days. This kept a small stock of
drinks and food cold. Around the outside of the cooler but inside the
icebox, we kept veggies, eggs, etc. This area was cool, but not cold.
All in all, I recommend Reflectix highly. It is very good insulation at a
very good price.
From Bob Lucas on the Morgan mailing list:
I have the Kollman book. It was the basis of acquiring equipment to install
mechanical refrigeration in the future. I have found from talking to other
vessel owners that the Kollman equipment is fair to average but that
customer service is poor. I have no personal experience at this time. ...
From N. Bruce Nelson on The Live-Aboard List:
> is a "holding plate" the equivalent of those blue plastic packs
> you can buy to freeze at home and then put in a cooler ?
Adding frozen blue packs would increase your "holdover". ...
The blue plastic packs contain an anti-freeze solution. Unlike ice, they
will warm up as they thaw. Most American-manufactured holding plates do the same.
Some holding plates behave like ice and stay the same temperature as they freeze and
thaw. This is desirable because it results in more stable box temperatures
and results in the food lasting longer.
From Stan on The Live-Aboard List:
From Colin Foster on The Live-Aboard List:
If you're water-cooled, you need a brushless pump or
you'll be replacing pumps all the time.
A standard 12V pump will die in a couple of months. I know, I went through
several of them. The solution is a
model 893-09. It is a
brushless, submersible (I don't submerge it) impeller-type, NOT self-priming, so it
has to go below the waterline.
My pump has been on my reefer for 3 1/2 years, only shut down to defrost. I
think the cost is around $150, but it's money well spent.
DO NOT purchase the March pumps that have the water-cooling feature that is
fed by the pump itself. It is guaranteed to self-destruct. There are a
couple of pipes that divert a little of the water through the pump motor for
cooling. A really dumb idea. The first time the inlet or strainer is
blocked up, the water flow stops and the pump motor cooling stops allowing
the pump to overheat and self-destruct.
From RParts Technical Forum:
> I have a 15-year-old Iceberg water-cooled freezer/refrigerator
> system in my Swan. It appears to power two large holding plates
> in the freezer box (approximately 18 cu ft), this shares a common
> wall and cools the fridge box (approximately 12 cu ft) as
> well as a smaller holding plate for a small day fridge
> (approximately 8 cu ft).
> The compressor and evaporator finally gave up the ghost
> this season and I am attempting to figure out how to
> upgrade the entire system since it also used the older
> and now banned CFC's. What complicated this system is
> that the compressor could either run off a clutched pulley
> when the engine was going or off an electric motor when
> my 230v 50hz generator ran. So where do I begin?
> I obviously need all the upstream stuff to drive the
> holding plates, but how do I figure out what and how much HP?
The holding plates are your evaporators.
I would recommend trying to replace the condenser and compressor, and keep your system as close to
its designed specs as possible. The condenser is easier to chose than the compressor. To be of
more help I need a better description of the compressor (and condenser). Obviously, it is belt
driven, but can you find any labels or tags that may have some manufacturer info on it? Or a
physical description, including shape, size, material (aluminum, steel), and pulley sizes (both
engine and compressor). Can you tell how many cylinders it has? Can you find any photos on our
website that look similar?
It isn't that the refrigerant is banned, it's that the refrigerants are very expensive, and
harmful to the ozone. There is a good supply of recycled R12 available, but it is way expensive,
and there are many interim "drop in" replacements that work very well.
The 12 volt compressors that we offer really are too small to do what you want to do, which is
freeze two large freezer plates (probably plumbed in series). We do have compressors that will
work, and condensers as well. Does your system have a water pump, and what does the condenser look
like? What are the water connection sizes, and the refrigerant connection sizes?
From RParts Technical Forum:
Usually, refrigerator holding plates are around 24-26 degrees F, and freezer holding plates are
around 0 degrees F. It is important to go several degrees below this temp to assure that the
plates are as frozen as you can get them.
From RParts Technical Forum:
> I found that I didn't have enough insulation by drilling
> 1/8" holes through the bulkheads and probing with a coat hanger.
> This worked well but I found I only have from 1-1/2 to 3"
> of foam. Also a lot of empty space on all 4 sides
> including 7" under the bottom.
> Since I can't get into that space, I intend to inject that
> spray foam (hardware store) to fill all the dead space, it
> will greatly increase the total volume of foam. Question:
> will it hurt that the foam will adhere to the 3/4 ply
> bulkheads and the fiberglass hull?
I hate to be the bearer of bad news, but you have a problem which is going to be much more
difficult to correct than you are now thinking. You are correct in that you will indeed increase
the amount of foam by filling in all the gaps with spray foam. What you are not considering is
that in 6 months to a year (of constant refrigerator use) you will end up with a lot of very wet
foam which will make you wish you hadn't touched it. It is not correct that "closed cell foam"
does not absorb water. You must have some air circulation around the foam to prevent moisture
buildup. The only way to really solve the problem is to rip out the box and completely rebuild
it. If you are not up for that big of a task - don't do a thing.
Keep in mind that all of the information you are getting from various foam manufacturers applies
to "normal" installations in a land-based application - not boats. The only conventional foam you
are going to find that does not have a water absorption problem in boats is an extruded (not
The moisture passes directly through the cell walls so the fact that a foam is "closed cell" does
not solve the problem.
Without having any clue about water absorption and condensation, I did what you want to do on an
Bought cans of foam at Home Depot and squirted foam into neatly spaced holes, thinking that when
it came out of an adjacent hole, I could move to the next empty hole.
Then to my horror, watched interior of box bulge inward up to 1 1/2" in the middle of the sides
and on the bottom. Shelves would no longer fit, etc.
Had to drill more, bigger holes in woodwork surrounding box and slowly dig out extra foam. Even
so, each summer, the foam expanded a bit more.
What a pain! Box got colder, though.
Be careful when using expandable foams. Read the can for the expansion ratio and compare this to
the volume you intend to use it in. These foams can and will exert a large amount of pressure if
there is nowhere to go!
From RParts Technical Forum:
> Can buy refrig flare-fittings at hardware store ?
No, the flare connections for refrigeration are a different specification. They are "wrot" brass,
and are stronger than the standard hardware ones. We sell fittings on our web site.
From Matthew Meaney:
[To recharge a refrigerator that has no charging valves on it, after fixing the leak:]
You can buy bolt-on line-piercing charging valves. Any refrigeration
parts store should have them.
Example: Supco "Bullet 3-In-1 Line Tap Valve".
From Glenn Fagerlin on RParts Technical Forum:
Re: DIY Kit Experience - it works!
I assembled System 1 but made it water-cooled. I read the Calder book, tried to make sense of the
calculations and decided, with some help from the Forum, to go for it. I would like to thank the
Forum Tech, the Frigoboat guy on the forum and Alan, below, for their advise and help. I have a
stainless box (3 cuft freezer + 4 cuft refer, front loading) built into my 45' Catamaran with a
lot of nice maple cabinetry, so I decided to use it. Not the ideal but it was already there and
someone spent a lot of $ on the box.
My timing was a bit off since I did most everything before the DIY systems, and instructions,
appeared on the site. I am happy to report that the system works well, I learned a lot and saved
some money in the process. Having read through the new instruction manuals and compared the
recommended way with the ways I used, I conclude there are a lot of ways that work. Fortunately, I
did not make any serious mistakes. Below are some observations that might help others.
1. I used the Aeroquip Quick Disconnects. This allowed me to pressure-test (120 PSI and soap
bubbles) to find leaks (one solder pinhole and a few flares that needed tightening), disconnect
the pieces and take them to a service shop (Swedish Marine in SF Bay Area) for evacuation and
charging. I then installed the system, connected the components and fired it up. The service guy,
Alan, at Swedish Marine was one of the original founders of RParts! He offered many words of
wisdom as we evacuated and charged my system.
2. I found the high-temp silver solder (brazing) to be easier to work with. It came with the flux
on the rods and flowed much better for me. The danger I learned is that the fittings, like the
RParts water cooled condenser, are brazed. I used a heat sink like a wet rag and sheet metal to
deflect the heat from the torch. For the disconnects, I placed then in a bowl of water that
covered the brass but left the copper uncovered. This way the end of the fitting was a couple of
inches from the brass part that houses the rubber seals. Both worked well in that the plastic
covering on the condenser was not affected and the discoloration on the disconnect only got
halfway to the brass component of the disconnect.
3. I got a controller from Frigoboat for the BD50 that allows me to set the RPM from 2500 to 3500.
Without the controller the compressor runs at 2500, I am told.
4. RParts is a web-based company. They do not hold your hand, answer questions or otherwise
operate as a normal retail store. Hey, it's their business model and they can run the company the
way they want. The Forum answers most questions from what I can see, but there is no one to call at
RParts for help. They do get you the parts. I ordered the disconnects on the web at about 4 PM
PDT with overninght delivery. At 9 AM the next morning the UPS truck was at my door. Great
From RParts Technical Forum:
I recommend pressure for leak testing. Vacuum testing isn't adequate, as vacuum pressure is less
than 15 psig, and since it is sucking, it is quite possible the leak won't show up due to flux,
grease or other debris plugging the hole during suction. An internal pressure of 150 psig supplied
by nitrogen or CO2 will be much more effective for finding leaks. Soap bubbles are a good way of
finding leaks, also watch for a pressure drop over several days. Some of the nitrogen or CO2 will
go into solution with the oil, especially with a temperature drop, but this should be less than 3
to 5 psig per day, and will usually stabilize after the first day. If the temperature doesn't
drop, the pressurizing gas won't go into solution as readily.
Dyes work well, but the system usually has to be run for a while before the dye will show up, and
once the dye gets spread around, it can be hard to pinpoint the leak.
From DG on Cruising World message board:
We might be replacing our refrigeration system. Currently we have an older Grunert AR-50 DC
system. We're starting to have some problems, and the guys at Cay Electronics are saying that we
might just be better off replacing the system, as ours now is about 16 years old.
From Richard Kollmann on Cruising World message board:
Cay has offered a reasonably decent deal just to swap out a new Grunert system for the old, which
would keep the existing plates, etc. They are recommending, however, that we consider the SeaFrost
BD system which is both air and water cooled, so it has a little bit more flexibility.
Before you decide on a replacement refrigeration system, review the slide show on my web site. If
you are to replace the compressor and keep the holding plates, make sure the compressor's output is
equal to the old unit's capacity. If the tubing in the holding plate is 1/2 OD then a 1/2 HP is the
minimum size replacement compressor. If the boat has a generator onboard or has spent time
connected to shore power I would also replace the seawater condenser.
Sixteen years is not an old Grunert unless the boat was used as a full-time live-aboard or has
One comment, there is no such thing as a bulletproof boat refrigeration system. Grunert,
Frigoboat, Crosby, Adler Barbour, Technautics, Sea Frost all have excellent systems. The trick is
to select the correct system for your application. If part of the box is to be a freezer and you
plan on cruising in the tropics, sixteen year old insulation will have lost much of its insulation
All closed-cell foam insulation breaks down over time, allowing the trapped insulating gas bubbles
in the cells to escape and be replaced with air containing moisture. Polyurethane ridged and spray
foams are the most common foams used in refrigerators. What percentage of an insulation's R value
is lost in ten years or twenty years is not something manufacturers would want to make available.
I have heard the figure of 15 years used as the service life of closed-cell foam insulation, but
not from any credible study. From my own experience there is two inches of spray foam in my 21
year old boat's refrigerated box. I see no measurable change in heat gain over the years but this
observation means very little . So I still feel it necessary to point out the fact that insulation
does age and become less effective over time. It is also my opinion that only boats with low-temperature
freezers cruising in the tropics, need to be overly concerned about replacing dry old
refrigerator insulation. If insulation is found to be wet then it must be replaced.
From Mike Brasler on The Live-Aboard List:
I have always felt "ripped-off" by the prices that "marine" fridges command.
We bought a domestic underbar refrigerator. It is modern, made with the
latest insulation material, clean, white, and has natty little racks that
the women in my life love. It has a small freezer compartment up at the top,
and all the goodies in the door too. It came with a 220v 90w motor, and a
220v 15 watt courtesy light. I got a Danfoss BD 35F compressor and a 15w 24v
lightbulb, and fitted them. It starts about 3x per hour for 7-10 minutes and
consumes 2.3 amps at 24v including the fan. The charge is 47 grams of R134a.
It has a concealed condenser using the case for radiation. We are thrilled with it.
The fridge cost 149 Euros and at that price I can afford to replace it every
2 years for the next 8 and still won't be close to the ridiculous overpriced
madness that we are subjected to.
Most of the compressors are made in the same place regardless of the brand
From article by G. Kevin Alston in issue 1999 #4 of DIY Boat Owner magazine:
- Analyze your goals and your current setup before deciding whether
to add insulation, build a complete new box, and/or replacing the mechanics of the system.
- In the tropics, a refrigerator gets about 50% of its heat-load
through the box insulation; a freezer gets about 80% of its heat-load that way.
In a poorly-insulated freezer box, the food farthest from the evaporator and closest to
the outside of the box may never freeze, no matter how good the mechanics are.
- All foam (except extruded polystyrene) must be installed with at least a 1/2" air-gap
between foam and any surrounding cabinetry.
- Moisture barriers only serve to trap moisture after it gets through
the inevitable pinholes.
- Closed-cell urethane foam does absorb water; it just does it more
slowly than open-cell foam.
- Don't make the box interior liner out of stainless steel: it's
hard to make watertight.
- Radiant-heat barriers (alumninum-covered space blankets or bubble-wrap) are not
very useful, since most heat transfer into a box is via conduction instead of radiation.
- There is not much difference between a front-opening box and a top-opening box,
because the extra air transferred with a front-opener contains very little heat.
And a top-opener may be open longer because it's harder to find something that is buried.
- Small gaps in the insulation do not cause catastrophic heat transfer,
unless there's air-movement through the gap.
- Under humid conditions, even the best-insulated boxes sweat when topped
with a seat-cushion or simmilar insulator. This is not a sign of poor box insulation.
Maintain an air-gap under the cushion.
- If you find moisture in your insulation, you must rip it out and rebuild
the box. Not only is the moisture killing refrigeration performance, but it
may be causing hidden dry rot.
- A cruising couple on a 40-foot boat probably would want a 5- or 6-cubic-foot refrigerator
and a 3-cubic-foot freezer.
- "Spillover" from freezer to refrigerator is not recommended.
Temperatures will be erratic and efficiency low.
- Don't install a drain unless you're going to use ice and no refrigeration.
- Don't fit the box to the curve of the hull; make it rectangular.
- Making a well-sealing door likely will be the hardest part of the box-building project.
- Interior liner: consider having a plastic fabricator make one out of 3/8" polypropylene sheet.
From Roger L on The Live-Aboard List:
Best book I ever saw on troubleshooting R12 systems was a Sam's
manual on Automotive Air Conditioning by K. L. McDonald. Doesn't
cover anything marine, but the principles still hold.
From Richard Kollmann on RParts Technical Forum:
Moisture on the outside of a refrigerator indicates the insulation is poor. Moisture inside a refrigerator indicates
moist air is infiltrating into the box. Any time an object is ten degrees colder than the air, moisture will collect
on the object. Moisture always collects on the refrigerant evaporator and forms frost in a refrigerator.
Trying to eliminating evaporator frost by insulating it is not the answer. Keeping moisture out of the box is the answer.
From Woodie Young in Benner Bay:
Touch the cooling coil on back.
Where it comes out of compressor, and probably goes to the top
of the coil, it should be almost too hot to touch.
At the other end, probably at the bottom, it may still be warm but you can touch it.
If you can touch it everywhere, needs Freon.
From Kim on World-Cruising mailing list:
A refrigeration engineer told me that the air in the fridge or freezer
doesn't really hold that much cold. When you open the door the impact has
more to do with the entry of moist air, not the loss of "cold air". We see
this especially in freezers and the ice buildup due to the moisture in the
air that enters the freezer.
What I want but no one seems to make:
I want a 12 VDC, air-cooled, fridge/freezer, constant-cycling, drop-in unit (stock, one piece,
like my current Nova Kool). But using that vacuum-panel insulation
that has the incredibly high R-value.
No one makes a unit like that, as far as I can tell.
Why not ? Maybe because it is cheaper to get the increased efficiency by some other
route, such as changing to water-cooled instead of using expensive insulation ?
Or some other reason ?
From RLK on Sailnet forums 7/2010:
Repair Or Replace Your 12 Volt Refrigeration ?
The pleasure boat refrigeration industry today is following the marine industry down the drain.
We have seen refrigerator companies such as Grunert, Crosby, Adler Barbour, WAECO acquired by Demitic.
Bay has stopped production of their boat refrigeration products. Northern Lights, a manufacturer
of marine generator sets, has acquired Ft. Lauderdale-based Rich Beers Marine.
What seems to be missing in this new market are the experienced people who provided technical
after-market support in the past. The technical approach to small-boat refrigeration today
is the same as when you buy a toaster: if it does not work after a short warranty it
is expendable, so they advise you to buy a new one. The most recent loss to small-boat
refrigeration support is the announcement from Rparts.com that they will discontinue
operations of Refrigeration Parts Solution effective June 30, 2010.
If someone tells you to buy new 12-volt refrigeration because your compressor will not
run, do not believe them. If your compressor runs but there is no cooling, then the
solution is difficult and generally requires technical help. If your compressor fails to run,
then anyone with basic technical knowledge can find and correct a failure to run of a Danfoss compressor.
If your refrigeration unit is over 10 years old and has a Danfoss BD 2 or BD2.5 or BD3 compressor,
then it has the older, discontinued electronic 4-pin module.
Troubleshooting Danfoss compressors with 4-pin modules consists of the following steps:
1. All of these compressors have a 4-pin module connector and their modules contain an external fuse.
If this fuse is blown there are two reasons why: either power wires to module are reversed,
or module has an internal failure.
2. Check to see that there is actually power at the refrigerator control module.
3. Place jumper wire across thermostat terminals on electronic module.
If compressor still does not run go to next step.
4. Disconnect black fan wire from electronic module.
If compressor runs, replace fan. If compressor still does not run after fan
ground wire is disconnected, go to next step.
5. Run correct size and correct polarity jumper wires direct from a fully charged
battery in order to bypass all boat’s wiring. Voltmeter readings are of no value
when looking for voltage spikes. If compressor still does not run, electronic module
needs to be removed and tested on another unit. If there are no other units available to test your module on,
I will test all 12 volt Danfoss control modules free except for BD80 compressor modules.
Email me for shipping address and details: richard at kollmann-marine.com
VARIABLE-SPEED DANFOSS COMPRESSORS
Small 12/24 volt boat refrigeration using Danfoss compressors manufactured after 1996 will
have a BD 35 or BD 50 variable speed compressor with a troubleshooting computer chip
built into their control module. This circuit makes it easier to find troubled area
if compressor fails to run. If your unit does not have this $2 LED install one,
as it could save you a lot of money later. Without the LED on these new units.
troubleshooting will be the same as earlier 4-pin Danfoss BD compressors.
If installed, troubleshooting LED will flash only if electronic module sees a
compressor problem. In each case problems of compressor’s failures to run are
identified by counting number of flashes of LED:
- No LED flashes would indicate either thermostat is open or no power to module.
- One LED flash and a 4-second pause indicates a boat wiring electrical resistance
problem or low batteries. Because of modules sensitivity to milliseconds of a voltage spike,
they cannot be detected by a voltmeter. Solution is to bypass boat’s wiring until problem is located.
- Two LED flashes indicates fan over-current cutout. If fan circuit on these variable speed
compressors exceeds ½ amp, compressor startup will be aborted. This condition
can be confirmed by disconnecting Black fan wire at module; if fan runs replace fan.
- Three LED flashes indicate excessive torque is required to start compressor.
This is commonly caused by turning compressor off and back on too quickly or
too much refrigerant or poor condenser cooling. Most people jump to the conclusion
that there is a mechanical rotor lock up inside compressor and this is a mistake
on Danfoss BD compressors.
- Four LED flashes indicate compressor motor not reaching sustained
controlling speed above 1,850 rpm quick enough.
If someone has tampered with refrigerant by connecting gauges to a system, letting air
in or adding too much refrigerant can cause either a Three or Four LED flashing signal.
On water-cooled Danfoss condenser systems, three and four LED signals are common
when seawater gets into refrigerant circuit.
If you have sources for fair-priced refrigeration parts and technical assistance.
email them to me and I will list them on my web site. I found a source for 4-pin modules
at a fraction of the price currently being asked and have been advised that
refrigeration parts outlets such as United Refrigeration can special-order the newer
Danfoss modules or compressors at a fair price.